Filtered by: Participatory Techniques <Back to previous page ‘Measure what you treasure' to make the most impact in your regionProgramme Effectiveness Training recently took place at the Tearfund Central American office, covering Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The idea… A11 Mapping the local areaLocal people already know more than any outsider about their community and the people living there. Many people assume they know everything about… A12 Community timelineAll change builds on what has gone before. It is helpful for a community to reflect on the changes that have already occurred and what has been… A13 Seasonal calendarAt certain times of the year, there may be particular pressures or struggles that people face. Sometimes, ways to reduce these pressures may develop… A14 Using roleplays and song Another helpful way to focus on key issues within the local area is to encourage people to prepare a role-play to express their concerns. As people… Adult Education - Who sets the agenda?by Simon Batchelor. There has been a lot of discussion in academic circles about how adults learn. People working in development are becoming increasingly influenced by the writings of Brazilian adult educationalist, Paulo Freire. He suggested that education is never neutral. When a teacher teaches, it either leads to people conforming to society, or to liberation. He went on to say that people learn more by critically thinking through their own situation than by soaking up the ... C11 Group membersGroups are made up of all kinds of people but there are a few types that can be found in nearly all groups: Complainers – people who rarely find… C12 Making the most of meetings How often are meetings dominated by one or two ‘important people’ telling everyone what they should be doing? How productive is this kind of… Community survey for AIDS awarenessMany people continue to become HIV infected, despite all the work in HIV/AIDS education carried out by many organisations. (However, in Uganda the figures are no longer increasing, showing the effectiveness of AIDS education there.) It is clear that though people’s understanding has increased, resulting changes in behaviour still follow a long way behind. PLA sessions were conducted in Lungwena area, Mangochi in Malawi to find out how much people know about AIDS. In the eight villages we ... Communityled total sanitation‘Community-led total sanitation’ was pioneered in Bangladesh by Kamal Kar (a development consultant from India) and the Village Education Resource Centre while they were evaluating an NGO’s traditional subsidised sanitation programme. They wanted to convince the NGO to stop subsidising toilet construction because subsidies in the past had not led to community ownership and toilet usage. Instead, they suggested that the NGO should encourage people to help themselves. They developed an approach ... D7 Community mapping Once people are aware of the need to make preparations for a possible disaster, it can be very useful for them to map their community. Maps allow… Drama for communicationby B Mounkoro. Drama can be a very valuable tool to encourage participatory learning. When used with a community in Mali, through a development programme, it was found the villagers’ sketches expressed certain problems which stopped people participating in development work. EditorialThe heart of this issue concerns real participation – valuing the contribution of each individual and ensuring that each person has the opportunity to share their views. Too often, ‘experts’ from outside think they have the answers to development issues. Too often, local people (who may have been told for decades that their knowledge is inadequate) assume that only outside experts can solve their problems. Genuine sustainable development can only come from community action – begun and ... Exploring issues with role playAsk one participant to begin improvising a scene. They can either create a scene about anything they choose, or the facilitator can ask them to create a scene around a particular topic, such as violence, power, child birth or sickness. When another participant recognises the scene they shout ‘Freeze!’. The scene is frozen. Ideas for health trainingI'd like to share some training activities which I have developed with the help of village people to encourage discussion on health and nutrition. Participatory training in Tanzaniaby Dr Thomas Kroeck. Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methods can be very helpful as a way of collecting information for planning and setting up development projects. They have a number of advantages over formal surveys. PLA in actionBrian Polkinghorne wrote with an interesting response to Issue 29. Here are some of the points he made, together with comments from Simon Batchelor (who wrote the opening article in Issue 29). PLA Practical Techniquesby James Mascarenhas. MYRADA in South India have done much work with rural people on participatory methods and provide training for other organisations in the use of these methods. They have produced a very helpful training video (see 'Resources'). Their address is… Reaping the rewards of community film-makingAfter a screen was found and an old projector repaired, our partners in Uganda were delighted to share a short film with a packed Owii Church and… ResourcesParticipatory Learning and Action: A Trainer’s Guideby Pretty, Guijt, Thompson and Scoones. This is an excellent and comprehensive guide to the whole subject of PLA. It is well designed and easy to read and use with 267 pages. It covers a wide range of topics, from warm-up exercises with newly formed groups, to adult learning and the challenges of training in the field. Full details are given for 101 exercises, including their uses, time involved, materials needed and how to use them. This ... Selecting appropriate latrinesby Frank Greaves Why do so many latrine programmes not have their intended impact on the health of the community? In recent years there has been more emphasis on changing attitudes towards sanitation and hygiene, hygiene education and community ownership. But sometimes this has meant that little attention has been given to selecting appropriate latrine technologies. This article looks at how we can guide communities to select technically appropriate latrines, while at the same time ensuring ... Small World TheatreSmall World Theatre is an educational charity that uses performing arts in community development, advocacy and awareness-raising. They train local theatre groups in participatory drama methods, and work with communities to explore governance, rights and environmental issues. The Alayon Work Group System Farmers helping other farmersIn the Philippines, it is very common to see neighbours helping a family repair their house or preparing food for the wedding of a son or daughter. Filipinos are ready to help one another in times of need, celebration or grief. This readiness to offer each other time and support is known as alayon (a voluntary work group) in the Philippines. The main purpose of forming an alayon is simply to help one another lighten a heavy task. People organise alayons to help with farm work, harvesting crops, ... The Beehive Model for team buildingby Chiku Malunga. This article introduces ‘the Beehive Model’ of team building. It compares the work of teams with the way bees behave in a hive. It may help to raise awareness and understanding within organisations and community groups about the importance of using teams and of what makes a successful team. It may also provide ideas for looking at how existing teams perform. The Development Gameby Ron and Karen Stoufer The Mwanalundu disaster risk reduction projectby Dingiswayo Jere Useful energisersDuring meetings, workshops or training sessions there may be times when energy levels fall and people’s attention wanders. This is particularly true at the end of the morning, just after lunch or towards the end of the day. Difficult presentations, high temperatures and challenging decisions can all be made easier if there are enjoyable breaks between sessions. W2 Mapping our situationConditions in the area where we live will have a large impact on our health. Here is a useful exercise to consider the situation in our local area… Who expects what in community participationby Ben Osuga. Communities are often visited by various groups of people who hope to help the community. These visitors often bring with them packages of assistance which they expect the community to welcome. When communities are visited in this way, they develop their own expectations about the visitors and their future plans.