Filtered by: Forestry <Back to previous page A Social Forestry Programmeby Nick Brown. In an earlier issue of Footsteps (No 5, December 1990) Dr Julian Evans introduced the idea of community involvement in forestry. Most agencies and governments involved in forestry in poorer countries now recognise that forestry programmes can only really be successful in the long term if they involve the community. They must take into account the needs and hopes of the local people who depend for their survival on the land around them. If the local community is ... Adapting to drought in Ethiopiaby Tadesse Dadi. Waaqayyo Muudaa used to herd cattle and camels in the vast grazing areas of Fantalle District in the rift valley of Ethiopia. Now he guards the grass and trees growing in the 15 hectares of enclosed land that the community established two years ago in his village of Xuxuxii. This is a huge change of lifestyle for a young man who used to walk freely with his animals, far from his village. AgroforestryThe term “agroforestry” has been widely used for 10 or 15 years. It involves growing trees together with crops and sometimes livestock on the same land. AgroforestryEncouraging awareness of agroforestry for improving soil conservation, nutrition, soil fertility, fuel wood production and family income. Includes details of nursery techniques. Agroforestry case study: Indonesiaby Richard Roden. In 2002, local NGO Ayo Indonesia started to promote sustainable agriculture to the farmers’ group ‘Suka Maju’ in Meni in Golo Ngawan village in the East Manggarai district on the island of Flores, Indonesia. They were introduced to new ideas for land conservation and agroforestry to increase land productivity. Agroforestry glossaryAgroforestry growing crops and trees together so that both benefit. Aim broad, long-term, important goal. Boundary a dividing line which marks the… Agroforestry in the Dominican RepublicOur organisation – NATURALEZA – works in the Dominican Republic, encouraging agroforestry work. Our first priority was soil conservation. Then we began to establish community tree nurseries and hedges. Alley croppingCompiled by Isabel Carter Bees and trees working togetherby Paul Latham. I remember waking up in the house where my wife and I lived near the village of Manse Nzundu in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Outside it was only just beginning to get light yet I could hear the sound of bees working some flowers... Bible studiesThese Bible studies are designed to use in small groups. They may provide a useful introduction to a meeting where different topics from the Guide… Bible study: Our stewardship of treesTrees are often mentioned in the bible. They remind us of God’s creation; they are used as a picture of the mature Christian, and we read about how the Jews used them with care. Bible study: The purpose and meaning of treesby Chris Hawksbee. Very early on in the Bible, in the book of Genesis, we find that trees are mentioned. Not just one variety of tree, but various kinds... Cleft grafting for mangoes and avocadosBy Mike and Isabel Carter. In Footsteps No. 5 the advantages of bud grafting citrus trees were discussed. These include: CommunityCelebrating the Moringa tree! Community reforestationby Hamisi Mushamuka. Trees represent life. They have many practical uses and they are part of our lives whether we live in an area with many trees or just a few. Trees play an important part in our environment, our health, our economy, our culture and our society. EditorialIn the book of Proverbs we read: “a good man leaves an inheritance for his children’s children”. In these days of global de-forestation, trees and forests may be a truly precious inheritance to leave for our children and grand-children. Environment Case StudiesAll around the world groups are responding to environmental problems in a variety of ways. Here are a few examples… Experiments with neemby Dr Rachel Reuben. The Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a common tree in towns and villages in India. Its distinctive leaves and sprays of small, white, sweet smelling flowers are a familiar sight in avenues and gardens. F1 Introduction to agroforestry Agroforestry is the practice of allowing trees and crops to grow together. This may be on farmland or in the forest. It is a way of making better… F10 Suitable containers for tree seedsSeeds can be planted in all kinds of containers. Plastic tubes, milk cartons, plastic bags, tins or broken pots all make good growing containers. All… F11 Sowing seeds Plan sowing so tree seedlings will be ready during the rainy season. Many tree seedlings need about four to six months in a tree nursery before… F12 Care of young seedlingsAs the seeds grow, they develop into seedlings. These need room to develop. Thin out to leave just one seedling in each container and well-spaced… F13 Root pruningSeedlings planted in large seed beds need special care to prevent the roots growing together and becoming mixed up. As the seedlings grow, the roots… F14 Hardening offFor the last four to six weeks in the nursery the seedling trees need to be ‘taught’ how to survive outside the nursery where there is no shade and… F15 Planting out tree seedlingsIf possible, only plant out seedlings on cloudy days when rain has made the soil really wet. Late afternoon is the best time to plant them out. Water… F16 Giving young trees a good startMake a small hollow around the tree to catch water. Keep clear of weeds. If trees are planted on a slope, make V-shaped ridges to catch and hold… F17 Alley cropping A common method of agroforestry is called ‘alley cropping’. Closely planted lines of suitable trees are spaced about five metres apart – usually by… F18 Trees for farm boundaries Some trees are useful to plant on the edges of fields and farms. They can be used to mark boundaries and to provide protection from strong winds.… F19 Trees for livestock fodder Many trees suitable for agroforestry have leaves and pods that are edible by animals such as cattle, goats and sheep. They can be cut regularly and… F2 The benefits of agroforestry Trees help us in so many ways. See how many uses you can think of. Consider how much can grow in a forest and how fertile the forest soil can be.… F20 Firewood trees Often when trees are grown on the farm by men, they are grown for timber. Women are not allowed to cut these trees for firewood. Special trees may… F21 Fruit trees All kinds of fruit trees can be grown near crops. They are often very suitable to plant as boundary trees, near to the home or as small plantations… F22 Moringa a tree with special propertiesMoringa is a small tree with many valuable properties. It grows fast and it continues to grow if cut back. The leaves can be cooked as a green… F3 The names of treesLocal trees usually have one or more names in each local language. However to help people who speak different languages identify the same tree, every… F4 Qualities needed for agroforestry trees The best trees to grow together with crops are those with deep roots so they do not compete with crops for water and nutrients. They should allow… F5 Encouraging tree growth Many local trees can be encouraged to grow without the need to plant seeds. If you only want a few seedlings of a local tree, it may be possible to… F6 Obtaining young trees You may be fortunate to have a nearby nursery that has a good supply of tree seedlings. However, most farmers who want to plant a lot of trees will… F7 Collecting and storing tree seeds Make it a habit to carry some bags or old envelopes with you so you are always ready to collect seed from good trees. Collect only fully ripened… F8 Direct planting of tree seeds Many trees can be sown directly into the ground. Plant lines of seeds following the contour line, or around the outside of a plot of land. Plant the… F9 Preparing a tree nursery It is very simple to build and look after a tree nursery. This can range from just a few trees growing in shade near your home to a large nursery… Farmer-managed natural regeneration: steps to success How to regenerate trees from living stumps, roots and seeds in the soil Gathering tree seedsMake it a habit to carry some bags or old envelopes with you so you are always ready to collect seed from good trees. Grafting citrus treesMany of the fruits we eat come from trees. Fruits are an important human food, rich in vitamins. Some fruits, such as papaya and passion fruit, grow easily from seed. But if you have tried growing citrus fruit from seeds, you may have been disappointed with the results. Growing bambooThe valuable Bamboo plant has many uses. It can be used to carry water, as building material, for making furniture, craft work and to control erosion on riverbanks. But bamboo is always in short supply because it is not usually cultivated by farmers. It just grows wild. Most types of bamboo grow shoots from underground stems called rhizomes. These shoots grow into tall above-ground stems. Harvesting fruit the easy wayHarvesting fruit from tall trees can be a problem. Some people ask young children to climb the trees and harvest ripe fruit. If the children don’t have a basket, they throw the fruit to the ground. The children may fall and injure themselves as they try to reach out for the fruit. Other people throw stones or sticks at the ripe fruit. This can also be dangerous if people are hit – either by the fruit or the stone or stick. Some people shake the tree, especially if it is small, and sometimes ... How to make seed ballsA simple method to restore plant life to an eroded area is by using seed balls. Each year, collect wild seeds. Children are especially good at gathering seeds, and they will enjoy learning about plants. Involving a community in forestry projectsAlmost everyone likes trees. They bring lots of benefits and are pleasant to have around. However, spending time and effort on them often seems less important than growing food, finding clean water or helping to build a new school classroom. Issues in forestryby Julian Evans. As the international conference on climate change in late 2010 in Cancún, Mexico, reached a disappointing outcome, we will have to resort to doing our own bit to protect our environment. This includes taking care of trees and forests, because forest clearance and degradation accounts for close to 20% of the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Quite apart from all the other losses caused by the destruction of forest – indigenous people’s homes and livelihoods, biodiversity,... Mangrovescompiled by Helen Gaw. Mangroves are a group of trees that can grow in salt water. Mangroves have large root systems which prevent erosion and provide an essential habitat for valuable fish species. They can also grow in fresh water. Mangrove forests are important for protecting coastlines, riverbanks and estuaries from floods and storms. Medicinal trees - Trees with healing propertiesTraditional medicines often include one or more tree parts or products. These may be the fruit, leaves, flowers, bark, roots, seeds or oil. Here we share some information about a few medicinal trees in the humid and arid tropics. We strongly recommend that you consult a local herbalist first about the correct quantities and use. In the case of serious symptoms, you should consult a doctor. Moringa oilby Geoff Folkard and John Sutherland. A previous article (in Footsteps 20) described the many uses and products of the multi-purpose tree – Moringa oleifera. That article described the use of crushed seed to clean drinking water. This article looks at methods of extracting edible oil from moringa seed. Moringa oleifera - a multi-purpose treeby Geoff Folkard and John Sutherland. River water taken for household use can be full of suspended matter, particularly in the rainy season. The water carries silt particles, solids, bacteria and other micro-organisms (some of which can carry disease). It is very important to remove as much as possible of this material before people use the water. Large water treatment centres do this by adding chemical coagulants to the water. These cause the particles to stick together (coagulate) and ... Motivating individuals to care for treesIf you ask farmers in the hills of Nepal what benefits are received from trees and the forest, they will answer without hesitation. Starting with tree leaf-fodder for their livestock (their only source of manure), they will continue with firewood, timber, fruit, animal bedding and shade. They may also mention the rather less obvious benefits of improving water resources and preventing soil erosion. However, if you then ask whether they have planted any trees recently, or whether they have ... Objectives and anticipated outcomesObjectives To increase awareness of the benefits of including trees with growing crops as part of sustainable agriculture To raise awareness of the… Parkinsonia aculeataThis multipurpose tree comes from the Americas, but has been introduced throughout the tropics because of its many uses. It grows well in drier areas and will cope with poor or salty soils, occasional frost, low rainfall and long dry seasons. It is also known as Jerusalem thorn, Mexican palo verde or simply Parkinsonia. Releasing the underground forestRestoring unproductive land by encouraging native trees to grow and flourish ResourcesAgroforestry – A PILLARS Guide Agroforestry is the practice of allowing trees and crops to grow together, on farmland or in the forest. PILLARS Guides are designed for use in small group situations where one or more people are literate and confident enough to lead others in a group discussion. No training is needed for the leader. This Guide raises awareness of the benefits of agroforestry for sustainable agriculture, for the soil and for nutrition. It increases understanding of the different ... Short Cuts to Tree PlantingHere is a good idea from farmers in Costa Rica. Two months before the crop planting season begins, farmers here look for well developed trees with large shoots growing straight up from side branches (epicormic shoots). They choose thick three-year-old shoots (A) and cut them right at the base. If the shoots are over 2 metres long they will be out of reach of grazing animals when planted. However, shorter shoots can also be used. The shoots are trimmed and laid horizontally in the shade for one ... Soil careby John Crossley. Deforestation often leads to erosion. This article shares a method for improving soil fertility for agriculture. Speaking up for forests and livelihoodsIn South-East Asia, as part of a larger dam-building project, a government and foreign companies are planning to build a dam at the meeting point of two rivers. This place is rich in biodiversity and has great cultural significance for the people that live there. The project involves flooding a large area of forest and relocating 60 villages, affecting around 15,000 people. These families will no longer be able to provide for themselves and raise... The neem treeFollowing a recent article on using Periwinkle in the treatment of some cancers, here are some details of how to make use of another plant, the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica), which is known by many different local names e.g. Aria-bepu, Asadina d’Inde, Bowtimaka, Dharak, Margosa, Neeb, Nib, Nimmi, Vaypum, Veppa, etc. The Transport of Tree Seedlingsby Michael Madany. When I began doing agroforestry work with communities in Somalia in 1985, I wondered how to solve the problem of transporting tree seedlings. Tree seedlings grown in polyethylene tubes need great care while they are being carried to make sure they are not damaged before planting. The tree gardens of the ChaggaThe ‘tree gardens’ of the Chagga people of Mount Kilimanjaro provide an inspiring model of how land can be sustainably managed. Top tips for tree plantingby Steve Collins. It is an unfortunate reality that a significant proportion of the millions of trees planted around the world each year do not survive long enough to meet the purpose for which they were planted. As a result, people’s time and resources are wasted, the problems that the tree planting was supposed to tackle continue, and people often become disappointed and disillusioned. Tree nurseriesTake care when choosing a site for a tree nursery. It should be close to a permanent supply of water. Remember the nursery will be full of seedlings during the dry season. The site must be on well drained land that does not flood, with a supply of fertile soil nearby. It will need to be protected from animals. Tree surveysThis activity can be used with children to help them learn about their surroundings. They will also learn about the use of surveys, ranking and charts to collect and display information. Farmer groups could find these techniques useful in surveying local trees or when selecting popular species to grow in tree nurseries. The activities could be adapted to study crops, foods, livestock or type of work. Trees for firewoodCompiled by Helen Gaw. It is well known that the need for firewood can lead to deforestation, which damages the environment and makes it more difficult to find firewood. But people still need firewood.