Sustainable WASH interventions as populations transition from relief to development

In February 2013, WEDC and Tearfund completed the first stage in a piece of research whose ultimate objective is to form a planning tool that will advise on the choice of interventions in WASH (whether they are types of facilities, or facilitation approaches) that would be appropriate and sustainable throughout the "relief-to-development" continuum. Strong evidence suggests that such approaches should be (or be adaptable to) demand-led, livelihoods based, thus moving away from full dependency on implementing agencies to continuously deliver the services, particularly as affected populations enter the recovery phase after an emergency. 

Sustainable WASH interventions as populations transition from relief to 
development: Main report
 (PDF 1.1 MB)
Sustainable WASH interventions as populations transition from relief to development: Developing a framework for strategic analysis and planning (PDF 621 KB)
Darfur case study (PDF 642 KB)
Haiti case study (PDF 580 KB)  

Lessons learnt from Tearfund's global water, advocacy, sanitation and hygiene programme 2007–2012 (PDF 4 MB)
Over the period 2007–2012, Tearfund implemented a DFID-funded project focused on ‘Research, innovation and capacity building to improve humanitarian action in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector’. Through seven case studies, this publication showcases Tearfund’s learning, highlighting the successes and challenges from the project. All interventions sought to be demand-led and community-based, to improve livelihoods and to empower communities to approach officials directly to advocate for their WASH needs. The focus countries included those affected by natural disasters – Myanmar (Cyclone Nargis, 2008), Haiti (earthquake, 2010) – and those affected by complex emergencies (Liberia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, Sudan [Darfur] and South Sudan).

Water Safety Plans for communities: Guidance for adoption of Water Safety Plans at community level (PDF 662 KB)

Tearfund and its partners believe that a community water supply should be owned and managed by the user community, which should take responsibility for the safety and reliability of the supply. How then can communities be empowered to safeguard their water quality effectively? A Water Safety Plan is a relatively new approach that helps a community to understand the contamination risks to its water supply along the entire supply route – from catchment to consumption – and how to manage those risks. These guidelines offer explanation and guidance on how a community may be helped to form its own Water Safety Plan.

Various picture sets, and one case study, accompany the main text and these can be found here:
Picture Set 1 (PDF 2.8 MB)
Picture Set 2 
(PDF 1.9 MB)
Picture Set 3 
(PDF 2.8 MB)
Picture Set 4 
(PDF 1.8 MB)
Picture Set 5 
(PDF 3.6 MB)
Picture Set 6 
(PDF 1.6 MB)
Picture Set 7 (PDF 5.2 MB)
South Sudan case study:
Water Safety Plans – Step 1 (PDF 71 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 2 
(PDF 86 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 3 
(PDF 106 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 4 
(PDF 323 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 5 
(PDF 60 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 6 
(PDF 65 KB)

A French version of all the above material is available here: 

Water Safety Plans for communities: Guidance for adoption of Water Safety Plans at community level (French) (PDF 678 KB)

Picture Set 1 (French) (PDF 15.2 MB)
Picture Set 2 (French) 
(PDF 5.9 MB)
Picture Set 3 (French) 
(PDF 7.2 MB)
Picture Set 4 (French) 
(PDF 3.8 MB)
Picture Set 5 (French) 
(PDF 7.9 MB)
Picture Set 6 (French) 
(PDF 3.8 MB)
Picture Set 7 (French) 
(PDF 12.2 MB)
South Sudan case study:
Water Safety Plans – Step 1 (French) (PDF 74 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 2 (French) 
(PDF 82 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 3 (French) 
(PDF 93 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 4 (French) 
(PDF 95 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 5 (French) 
(PDF 59 KB)
Water Safety Plans – Step 6 (French) 
(PDF 60 KB)

The role of the church in improving access to sanitation PDF 240 KB)

The local church is often found at the heart of a community, not just upholding belief, cultural values and social tradition, but also as a force for positive change and development. This paper illustrates how the church is well placed to fulfil the vital roles necessary to deliver and sustain improved hygiene and sanitation.

The church's role in sanitation and hygiene: Guidelines and tools  (PDF 956 KB)

The church's role in sanitation and hygiene: Guidelines and tools is an unpublished report written to give practical guidance to churches and church-based partners on how to engage effectively with helping communities make improvements in safe sanitation and good hygiene practices. It may be that this is a new venture for them or they may wish to expand the current role that they play. It gives ideas and examples from churches that are already leading successful sanitation and hygiene initiatives, examples that will help stimulate and encourage other churches to realise their potential in the WASH sector.
WASH policy and research papers

A full list of our policy-based research including practical advice on how and why to advocate on WASH.

Comprehensive list of WASH resources (PDF 43 KB) 

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

This presentation highlights the drawbacks of supply-driven sanitation approaches and gives a rationale for a marketing style approach to sanitation. The presentation outlines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which focuses on inspiring a change in sanitation behaviour, rather than on constructing toilets. To view the presentation, click here (PDF 1.6 MB).
Published June 2010:
Adoption of Community-Led Total Sanitation: Guidance for programming of CLTS in Tearfund-supported projects  (PDF 516 KB)

CLTS in Emergencies and Post-emergencies context (PDF 389 KB)
In recent times, there has been a growing interest in the use of CLTS in emergency, post-emergency and post-conflict situations, and in fragile states. Indeed, some agencies have seen particular success in these arenas, at least in the early stages, eg Tearfund in Afghanistan and in DRC. However, there are also perceptions that CLTS is fundamentally ‘mismatched’ to the aims of achieving safe sanitation at scale in an emergency, or immediate post-emergency, context. Two primary reasons for this include its core principle that sanitation hardware should not be subsidised if there is to be replication to scale and long-term sustainability of improved sanitation. How is CLTS practically workable in a situation where participants have often lost all their wealth, and are at the point of greatest dependency on the aid community for their well-being? A second issue is that of ‘inclusivity’: can the poorest sections of the population obtain facilities for safe sanitation when their community structure and its social capital have been devastated?
Mindful of such challenges, this report (which was presented at an inter-agency Emergencies Environmental Health Forum in December 2012) investigates various agencies’ use of CLTS in the emergency and post-emergency context. It also adds further suggestions and guidance in CLTS application.
Environmental sustainability
For other documents related to environmental sustainability more broadly, click here.