Filtered by: Disease <Back to previous page Advocacy - communicating with people in power - good practice guide Children against the guinea wormThe Child-to Child programme aims to help children to help each other. Children can be helped to discover the world in which they live and to realise that they are a group with a definite role to play in the community. The Child-to Child Trust provides teaching materials and ideas which encourage children and their teachers to learn about health living, through the use of questionnaires, discussions, stories and games. Together the children are encouraged to carry out practical projects, such ... Diseases insects and environmentby Professor Malcolm Molyneux. When you come to think about it, a surprising number of different diseases can be spread between people by insects. Some of these diseases will be discussed in this issue of Footsteps. They are among the most important and serious diseases in the world, especially in areas which are not yet industrially developed. EditorialMalaria threatens 40% of the world’s population and kills about 2.5 million people every year. Most are children under five or pregnant women. In sub-Saharan Africa an estimated 70 million pre-school age children are at risk of dying of malaria. In addition, malaria among adults affects their ability to do productive work. All this means malaria is one of the biggest public health problems in many developing countries. Like the other diseases that we look at in this issue, malaria is ... Fact files on insect-borne diseasesInformation compiled by Isabel Carter and based largely on information from IAMAT and WHO publications, including press releases, Tropical Disease Research and Control of Tropical Diseases. Goal 6 Combat HIVAIDS malaria and other diseasesThe targets for this goal are to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV and AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases by 2015. Immunization in Disaster Situationsby Dr Edwin J Pugh. In disaster and refugee situations, infectious diseases are a potential major health hazard. This is due to a variety of factors including overcrowding, an unsanitary environment and poor nutrition. A mixture of people living in crowded, dirty conditions with low resistance to disease because of malnutrition, is a situation where infectious diseases may be severe and spread rapidly unless effective control measures can be established. Immunization The practical detailsExcept where marked otherwise, the diagrams on this page are taken from the book Immunization in Practice produced by WHO. Used with kind permission of Oxford University Press. Impregnated mosquito netsby Dr Chris Curtis. Malaria is caused by parasites (called Plasmodium) which are carried from the blood of one person to that of another by Anopheles mosquitoes (see above). This type of mosquito generally bites late at night, so bednets would be expected to be a good way of protecting against them. However, mosquitoes are very clever at finding holes or other ways into nets and they also bite arms or legs which rest against the net during the night. Insecticide treated netsby Professor Chris Curtis. Malaria is by far the most important insect-transmitted human disease. Latest WHO estimates are that there are 2.5 million deaths each year from malaria, mainly among African children. Malaria some new approachesby Dr D C Warhurst. In countries where malaria is very common, many adults may carry the infection without any symptoms, but infants and pregnant women are much more likely to become ill with malaria. Drugs are mainly used to control the illness. However, they can also be used to prevent it for certain high-risk groups such as pregnant women, sickle cell anaemia sufferers and visitors who have no natural immunity. Malaria a new solutionMalaria is a serious and growing problem world-wide, with about 2.5 million people dying as a result of malaria each year. The malaria parasites increasingly develop resistance to the well-known malaria drugs. New drugs are being developed, but these are often extremely expensive and not easily obtained. However, traditional medicine seems to be providing new hope. New ideas in the control of mosquitoesCompiled from material from DCFRN and Dr Chris Curtis. Mosquitoes carry diseases from one person to another. They are also a great nuisance. Some varieties carry malaria (Anopheles species), others dengue fever (Aedes aegypti) and others diseases known as filiariasis which causes elephantiasis (Culex species). Newcastle Disease Vaccines for village chickensby Professor P B Spradbrow. Most rural families in developing countries keep chickens, even those families that are too poor to own other animals. These chickens must scavenge for most of their food, although sometimes they receive household scraps as well. The chickens are not penned up and often they lack even basic housing. Village chickens are available for sale or barter and they provide meat or eggs. All too frequently a serious disease called Newcastle disease ... Noncommunicable diseases a growing challenge‘The rise of chronic non-communicable diseases presents an enormous challenge … Non-communicable diseases deliver a two-punch blow to economies and development. They cause billions of dollars in losses of national income, and they push millions of people below the poverty line, each and every year.’ Organising for immunizationby Sandra Michie. The needs Years ago in Zambia our tiny mission hospital was regularly over-filled with epidemic patients. Whooping cough and measles were the two worst and best remembered epidemics. In 1967 at least one child died from measles in every surrounding village. Often three or more died and since villages were very small - often with just one extended family - you can imagine the grief and despair. Production of medicinesThe preparation of a medicine from a plant that contains a beneficial chemical varies according to the chemical and the plant. Sometimes the chemical is extracted from the leaves by the use of boiling water. Sometimes the roots are dug up and ground. The most basic and common process for producing medicines is to use liquid and heat. Sexually transmitted infectionsDiseases and infections are passed on in different ways. Many, such as colds, influenza or tuberculosis, are passed to other people through the air when infected people sneeze or cough. Some, such as malaria, are passed on to others by mosquitoes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can only be passed on through sexual relationships. Because of this, people find them very embarrassing to deal with. Often they do not want to seek healthcare and so they suffer in silence. Staying healthy Reducing your risk of developing noncommunicable diseases[Health] The four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs) share common risk factors. Tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol can lead to heart disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Read more about recognising the signs of NCDs and how to help to prevent yourself and others from developing these diseases. TB and AIDS in the 1990sby Dr Paul Saunderson. Tuberculosis – usually known as TB – was one of the most feared of all diseases in the 19th century. The control of TBMany different ideas have been tried or suggested. Some believe that the only hope lies in new drugs and vaccines. However, there are other ways to help improve TB control programmes. Effective treatment for TB was first developed in the 1950s, but it is still often not available to many sufferers around the world. There are three main activities useful in controlling TB in developing countries… The return of sleeping sicknessSleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) is a disease carried by tsetse flies which affects an estimated 55 million people in 36 African countries. It causes severe pain, suffering and death in mainly rural communities. A WHO specialist has described the situation in many parts of Africa as a ‘time bomb’ under constant threat of exploding. Here is recent information from a Footsteps reader, Dr Paul Fountain… Theatre for disease preventionby Abel Gousseine. ‘If you prescribe me medicine, you will cure me for a day. But if you teach me to prevent disease, you will cure me for life!’ This is the message that our workshops display after each performance. We organise role plays for the benefit of health workers and other development workers to encourage them not only to give medicines or prescriptions to their patients, but also to teach them how to prevent disease. Treated bed netsRecent research has been carried out to examine the effectiveness of insecticide treated bed nets. Here in Tanzania, malaria is the main cause of illness and death. Over 93% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Research findings showed that the use of treated bed nets reduced child deaths by 20% and reduced illness from malaria by 50%. Please make sure your bed nets are ready! Understanding Immunizationby Dr Tom Crusz. Years ago, smallpox was a dreaded disease which killed huge numbers of people all over the world. No treatment could be found. People who survived the disease did not catch smallpox again. They had become ‘immune’. Cows also suffered from a form of smallpox called cowpox. An English Doctor, Edward Jenner noticed that people who caught cowpox did not catch smallpox. W3 Understanding how diseases spreadAll of us are influenced by our situations and our culture. Our beliefs about hygiene and how illness is spread depend very much on what we learn as… Working with traditional Medicinesby René Gayana Simbard. The Pan-African Institute of Community Health (IPASC) in DR Congo has several departments including training, research, healthcare, mother and childcare and consultation. Zoonosis: how animal diseases can become human diseasesby Dr Sally Best A zoonosis is a disease or infection that is naturally transmitted between animals and humans. Zoonoses cause serious public health problems and often particularly affect poor communities.